Archives for category: História da paisagem

O artigo de Leigh Harrison, que poderá ser consultado aqui, é de 2010 e saiu no Journal of Social History.

Entretanto, deixo-vos com outras ideias sobre o mesmo tema:

“In 1970 Black Sabbath made what many consider to be the first true heavy metal album self titled Black Sabbath followed in the next few years by Paranoid and Master of Reality. Guitarist Tony Iommi, vocalist Ozzy Osbourne, drummer Bill Ward, and bassist Geezer Butler churned out gloomy heavy churning riffs and rhythms accompanied nicely by Ozzy’s eerie vocal style. This Birmingham act nearly single handedly defined the essence of the heavy metal genre combining a fascination with dark mythological and religious subject matter juxtaposed against the reality of a working class life in poverty ridden industrial Birmingham during the early 70’s.”

Silver Dragon Records (consultado aqui)

“The influence of life in England during the 20th century can be seen in British metal music. This genre of music, and all rock and roll music of the time, was generally associated with the working class. Most early rock bands came from the working class, from a generation that had been through World War II and through Britain’s economic depression. It was during this era that the band Black Sabbath formed, a group of young boys from the Birmingham region. (…) As Bill Ward, Black Sabbath’s drummer, states, “This was not a rich place at all. Most people were just regular factory workers and they got by and made do. I sensed they were a prideful people”. More specifically, Black Sabbath was a product of the village of Aston, England:

“[It was ] a place both tender and tough, a city buried beneath the explosives of German bombs, and a place steeped in a tradition dating back over 500 years…this suburb of Birmingham was a community factory-filled and populated by the people working in them. Home values were stressed, but if you didn’t belong to a gang, the chances were you were in store for a daily thrashing.”

Britain’s poor economic state at the time was a direct result of the destruction and costs of World War II. Things were worsened as the United States ended the Lend-Lease Act with Britain, canceling an essential source of loans. Although the great change in culture is noted in Britain from the years 1959 to 1973, its true cause was economic change. Even renowned Black Sabbath singer Ozzy Osbourne, who later had a prolific solo career, claimed, “I don’t profess to be a messiah of slum people, but I was a back-street kid, and that little demon is still in there, shoving the hot coal in”. This lifestyle even had a direct impact on the sounds of the music itself. Guitarist Tony Iommi lost two of his fingers in a factory accident, prompting him to change the way he wrote and performed music; this led to his signature guitar-playing sound. Black Sabbath was not the only band with a connection to the working class. By the late 1970s, a group of similar British metal bands emerged, causing the era to be known as the New Wave Of British Heavy Metal, or the NWOBHM. Bands like Raven, Judas Priest, and Saxon began their careers in workingmen’s clubs, houses of beer and entertainment for the working class. Diamond Head, one of the most influential leaders of the NWOBHM, also formed in a town in the Birmingham region, in 1976. Another NWOBHM band, Motorhead, exuded a gruff and crude image, with an abrasive sound to match. Unlike similar bands, Motorhead rejected themes of politics and history, but instead represented the unrefined culture they came from. Much of the attraction for metal to British fans was its “speed, roughness, and volume” (Jeffrey Arnett). David Szatmary simplifies the condition, claiming the situation involved “poor British youths with no apparent future… [who] formed bands to express their frustration by means of a violent, explosive sound”. The rough and unpolished life of the working class in Britain, with its lack of optimism, was a significant, contributing factor to the creation of many similar metal bands.

In addition to the economic forces of the time, heavy metal formed as a reaction to the political and cultural pressures of the time. As psychologist Jeffrey Arnett notes, a significant portion of heavy metal songs portray feelings of alienation or other grim emotions. Indeed, early British musicians reflected the “militant mood” of their times (Szatmary). The names of many heavy metal bands of the NWOBHM indicated a type of “dark militancy” (Szatmary). Eponyms such as Angel Witch, Judas Priest, Iron Maiden, and Venom illustrate Szatmary’s assertion. Dissatisfaction with the government and society was a prime source of alienation. The despair of the Vietnam War and the constant threat of a nuclear disaster were sources of inspiration for early Black Sabbath songs such as “War Pigs” (“Paranoid” 1) and “Electric Funeral” (“Paranoid” 5). British students voiced their opposition to U.S. involvement in Vietnam on March 17, 1968: In Grosvenor Square, the Vietnam Solidarity Campaign launched a protest which had violent results (Arthur Marwick). The Black Sabbath song “Into The Void” expresses the rebellious sentiments of the generation.

(…) A study of 115 typical metal songs shows that 91% of the songs make use of a minor scale in the melody, as opposed to 9% that use a major scale exclusively. As Arnett puts it, “the heavy metal concert is the sensory equivalent of war“. Like the hippie culture of the 1960s, metal bands expressed dissent from the culture from whence they came and developed a musical style to express it (Szatmary).”

Shane Skowron (consultado aqui).


“A evolução da paisagem portuguesa nos últimos 12 000 anos”

parte 1

parte 2

Seminário a 8 de Fevereiro, entre 12.30h – 13.30h, no Auditório Florestal do Instituto Superior de Agronomia, por João Pedro V. Tereso (Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos
Genéticos/Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto).

“Estudos paleoecológicos e paleoetnobotânicos têm vindo a demonstrar que, nos últimos 12000 anos, a paisagem de Portugal continental sofreu profundas alterações. Estas alterações traduzem a interrelação entre dinâmicas ambientais e alterações nas sociedades humanas.

Numa primeira fase, marcada pelas profundas alterações climáticas que caracterizaram o fim do último período glaciar, a intervenção do Homem sobre o meio foi bastante reduzida, pelo que foram as dinâmicas climáticas o principal fator a condicionar a evolução da cobertura vegetal. No entanto, em pleno ótimo climático, durante o auge das florestas de quercíneas, as comunidades humanas transformaram-se, iniciando-se o declíneo dos ecossistemas florestais. Nas primeiras etapas de desenvolvimento das sociedades produtivas, fases de desforestação e recuperação da floresta sucederam-se; porém, há cerca de 3200 anos atrás, a pressão sobre os recursos florestais aumentou de forma muito significativa, ainda que a floresta tenha mantido a sua capacidade de regeneração.

Com o início do reino português, um novo paradigma surgiu, marcado agora pela florestação – povoamentos florestais – com os quais a coroa pretendia resolver os grandes problemas de abastecimento de matérias primas lenhosas. Esta fase perdurará até aos dias de hoje, ainda que sofrendo uma evolução determinada pelas alterações sociais e políticas verificadas nos últimos séculos.

Pretende-se com esta comunicação apresentar as principais fases deste processo que conduziu à paisagem e ao modelo de floresta que temos hoje, apresentando inclusive os principais métodos de estudo da Paleoecologia e Paleoetnobotânica, salientando as suas potecialidades mas alertando para as suas limitações.”

João Pedro Vicente Tereso